Metabolomics of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are chronic diseases that affect nearly 425 million people worldwide, leading to poor health outcomes and high health care costs. High-throughput metabolomics screening can provide vital insight into the pathophysiological pathways of DM and help in managing its effects. The primary aim of this study was to ... contribute to the understanding and management of DM by providing reliable evidence of the relationships between metabolites and type 1 diabetes (T1D) and metabolites and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Information for the study was obtained from the PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases, and leads to additional articles that were obtained from the reference lists of the studies examined. The results from the selected studies were used to assess the relationships between diabetes (T1D and/or T2D) and metabolite markers-such as glutamine, glycine, and aromatic amino acids-in patients. Seventy studies were selected from the three databases and from the reference lists in the records retrieved. All studies explored associations between various metabolites and T1D or T2D. This review identified several plasma metabolites associated with T2D prediabetes and/or T1D and/or T2D in humans. The evidence shows that metabolites such as glucose, fructose, amino acids, and lipids are typically altered in individuals with T1D and T2D. These metabolites exhibit significant predictive associations with T2D prediabetes, T1D, and/or T2D. The current review suggests that changes in plasma metabolites can be identified by metabolomic techniques and used to identify and analyze T1D and T2D biomarkers. The results of the metabolomic studies can be used to help create effective interventions for managing these diseases.