On_Culture Vol. 04 (2017)

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    Another twelve years: Hungarian newsreels and the invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968
    (2017) Barkóczi, Janka
    During almost twelve years after the Soviet regime crushed the Hungarian Revolution, the Warsaw Pact allies invaded Czechoslovakia to put an end to the 1968 Prague Spring and the country s recent reformist trends. The Soviet troops were accompanied by military forces from Hungary, Poland, East Germany, and Bulgaria. Among many other serious consequences, this helped to preserve the long-term power of communist governments in the region.This paper examines the audio-visual and conceptual elements of the official newsreel series published by the Socialist state of the Hungarian People s Republic between May and October 1968, focusing on the representation of the intervention and the depiction of Czechoslovakia as an Eastern Bloc state. The essay argues that the official media of the regime led by János Kádár dealt with this topic in a highly sensitive way because of the possible echoes of the 1956 uprising. In the editorial guidelines of the newsreels, a special ritual manner was introduced to inform and orient the audiences according to the interests of the central propaganda.The techniques and forms of media argumentation are examined based on the collection of Hungarian newsreels of the Hungarian National Film Archive, using both qualitative and quantitative methods.
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    Re-aligning Yugoslavia: the construction of alterity in the Yugoslav newsreels
    (2017) Turajlic, Mila
    During the 1960s, Filmske Novosti (the state-run Yugoslav Newsreels) played a key role in the representation of President Josip Broz Tito s international travels. Tito visited newly independent African and Asian countries in search of political alliances, and the newsreel reports framed these diplomatic travels as solidarity performances. Assigning two cameramen to follow the presidential trips Filmske Novosti produced a series of portraits of nascent nation states and their receptions of Tito, accentuating a discourse of similarity and unity as a challenge to Western political hegemony. As Yugoslav Newsreels extended their reach, exchanging these reports with a total of 40 countries by the end of the 1960s, their work became an influential medium advocating the process of decolonization in the international arena. This article looks at the legacy and perspective they offer in constructing narratives of an alternate representation of non-aligned countries to Yugoslav audiences. It further argues that this strategy of representation had significant consequences for the political situation within Yugoslavia. In 1968, this narrative resulted in a public sentiment of solidarity and identification which became evident in the protests that erupted in Yugoslavia, revealing how the internal political narrative was also reshaped in terms of alterity.
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    Political alterity in Pathé’s French and British newsreel coverage of the May 1968 events in Paris
    (2017) Clucas, Tom
    This article analyzes the use of alterity in Pathé s British and French newsreels depicting the May 1968 events in Paris. It argues that items from both newsreels construct the viewers country as a center of civilized democracy, using various figures of alterity (including voiceover, dubbing, camera techniques, cuts, and other forms of editing) to distance those at home from the scenes of violence on the streets of Paris. The French newsreel presents Charles de Gaulle as a democratic leader and blames naïve students in the Latin Quarter for inflaming violent sentiments among the impressionable ordinary workers. By contrast, the British newsreel presents the French government as failing to control a warlike mob with unreasonable demands. Though they frame the divisions along different lines, the items from both newsreels use alterity to differentiate their audiences from the protestors on the street and to place the responsibility for the riots far from home.
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    Marginality as a space of freedom: some notes on the popularity of naïve art among Soviet painters in the 1960s and 1970s
    (2017) Otdelnova, Vera
    This paper is dedicated to a special form of artistic statement, widely accepted among Soviet artists from the mid-1960s, that was provoked by a protest against the monopoly of academic art. Appeal to the heritage of naïve or folk masters helped professional artists to overcome the canons of Socialist Realism and to enrich their works with new subjects and heroes, often marginal and alien to the state ideology. The artists whose works are analyzed in this paper did not overtly criticize the Soviet state and its cultural policy, but invented their own imaginary worlds, and escaped into these worlds in their thoughts and in their works. Although this strategy appears rather passive, this paper assumes that by depicting and advocating new realities, free of official ideology and social norms, the artists questioned many Soviet conventions and, thus, enlarged and even erased their boundaries.
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    Politics and political alterity in the Spanish NO-DOs of 1968
    (2017) Gallo González, Danae
    NO-DO is the official name of the Spanish state newsreels, an acronym formed by the abbreviation of Noticiarios (News) and Documentales (Documentaries). In contrast to cinema newsreels in other occidental countries, NO-DO is closely associated with Franco s dictatorship (1939 1975). Created by Franco s propaganda ministry in 1943, NO-DO reels were shown until 1981, just a few years after Franco s death in 1975. The aim of this paper is to analyze Spanish newsreels modes of representation of politics and of political alterity in Mouffe s sense. It seeks to examine how NO-DO portrays the political antagonism that facilitated the Francoist regime s construction of its own identity. In order to do so, the paper firsts draw a genealogy of this genre in Spain and frames it within the context of 1968. Second, it presents an overview of the contents and the modes of representations of the newsreels during this year, later focusing on the timeframe from May to August. The goal is to examine the medial strategies used by the newsreel genre to deal with political Others lurking within and beyond Spain s borders.
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    Newsreels from 1968 communist Bulgaria: the encompassing Us vs. the different Them
    (2017) Pozharliev, Lyubomir
    This study provides an original interpretation of 53 newsreels, produced and projected in the People s Republic of Bulgaria in the year 1968. Based on a thorough audiovisual analysis, the article shows that newsreels are prime examples for the power of politics to employ visual art and the unique features of cinema for its own aims. The study has three main findings. First, it establishes the multifaceted role of newsreels in Bulgaria in the historical context of 1968, drawing particular attention to the dynamic relations between the Soviet and Bulgarian peoples. Second, it investigates the ways in which newsreels construct underlying ideological oppositions and visual presentations of Us versus Them. More specifically, the article outlines several distinct forms of and relations between Us and Them in their historical and ideological contextualization. Third, the article shows that Bulgarian newsreels from 1968 cannot be regarded as one among many kinds of works of socialist art, or as just visualized news. Newsreels carry a strongly politicized message and are therefore a highly potent means of shaping and manipulating the public opinion. The article contributes to the broader field of newsreel studies, offering new insight to a subject matter that is still underrepresented.
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    Otherness in the context of Martin Luther King Jr.’s assassination in Les Actualités Françaises of 1968
    (2017) Nier, Nicola
    The concept of alterity is always related to identity, and based on one s self-perception: the Self influences what we perceive as the Other. Following this idea, the present article explores the hidden Self of French cultural identity in French newsreels, Les Actualités Françaises, from 1968. It examines the construction and representation of alterity in the news coverage of the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. s assassination, and, consequently, what that reveals about French national self-perception. This event is notable for two reasons: first, Dr. King s death is an event of extraordinary international importance; second, the news coverage not only presents alterity, but also the handling of alterity by another culture. Therefore, in this example, the concept of alterity operates on multiple levels.The objective of this article is to analyze the interaction of image, music, text, and voice-over in this newsreel; the newsreel s effect on the French viewers; and the French national self-perception that is mirrored in the newsreel s representation. The argument will show that deep-rooted French values, existing since the French Revolution, have a strong influence on the perception and evaluation of the events in the US, and therefore on the handling of otherness.
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    "University is Ill:" representations of the Italian student crisis in 1968 Radar Cinematografica newsreels
    (2017) Gamelas, Inês
    In 1968, the protest culture of the younger generation reached its peak internationally, and it was at the universities that students ignited the turmoil. That same year, Italy too intensely experienced such student protest against the political, social and cultural status quo.This article aims at exploring how the events related to the student protests at Italian universities were portrayed in three 1968 Radar Cinematografica newsreel items. After a brief historical contextualization of the Italian student crisis, each newsreel item will be examined for the traces of alterity between students and the establishment, as featured in the voice-over commentaries. In doing so, I intend to investigate the extent to which these newsreel items representations of the Italian student protest movement depicted the sociocultural fracture between university students and society in that year. As far as the theoretical framework of this article is concerned, it will be shaped by Michael Pickering s concept of the stereotypical Other, since I aim at looking into how the clash of political views and ways of thinking society is portrayed in these newsreel items by means of a process of alterization of the students and their protest actions.
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    Alterity - a category of practice and analysis : preliminary remarks
    (2017) Bachmann-Medick, Doris
    This article provides introductory remarks on the concept of alterity, which could stimulate the discussion on newsreels/media and their representation of the Other. Starting from the observation that alterity has often been overshadowed by an overestimation of identity, the article differentiates between various fields of alterity : amongst them, real alterity in societal practice, representational alterity in media contexts, and attitudes of othering in movements between alterity or alienness. It critically brings to the fore some underlying frameworks and unspoken assumptions. Finally, the article asks whether the positioning of alterity in 20th-century newsreels has provided first approaches for overcoming its binary corset in the direction of a global circulation of images. Can this perhaps be seen as a step towards turning our attention to a revaluation and new recognition of the Other?
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    On alterities 1968 newsreels : editorial
    (2017) Gallo González, Danae; Pozharliev, Lyubomir