Advances in radial and spherical basis function interpolation
The radial basis function method is a widely used technique for interpolation of scattered data. The method is meshfree, easy to implement independently of the number of dimensions, and for certain types of basis functions it provides spectral accuracy. All these properties also apply to the spherical basis function method, but the class of ... applicable basis functions, positive definite functions on the sphere, is not as well studied and understood as the radial basis functions for the Euclidean space. The aim of this thesis is mainly to introduce new techniques for construction of Euclidean basis functions and to establish new criteria for positive definiteness of functions on spheres.We study multiply and completely monotone functions, which are important for radial basis function interpolation because their monotonicity properties are in some cases necessary and in some cases sufficient for the positive definiteness of a function. We enhance many results which were originally stated for completely monotone functions to the bigger class of multiply monotone functions and use those to derive new radial basis functions. Further, we study the connection of monotonicity properties and positive definiteness of spherical basis functions. In the processes several new sufficient and some new necessary conditions for positive definiteness of spherical radial functions are proven. We also describe different techniques of constructing new radial and spherical basis functions, for example shifts. For the shifted versions in the Euclidean space we prove conditions for positive definiteness, compute their Fourier transform and give integral representations. Furthermore, we prove that the cosine transforms of multiply monotone functions are positive definite under some mild extra conditions. Additionally, a new class of radial basis functions which is derived as the Fourier transforms of the generalisedGaussian φ(t) = e−tβ is investigated.We conclude with a comparison of the spherical basis functions, which we derived in this thesis and those spherical basis functions well known. For this numerical test a set of test functions as well as recordings of electroencephalographic data are used to evaluate the performance of the different basis functions.