Dynamic Critical Phenomena in the Classical Approximation on a Lattice
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The critical behaviour of a relativistic scalar field theory with Z2 symmetry is investigated near a second-order phase transition. Two sets of dynamic equations are employed, allowing to control conservation laws of both order parameter and energy density. We calculate spectral functions of the order parameter as well as unequal-time correlation functions of the energy momentum tensor at zero and non-vanishing spatial momenta from first-principles classical-statistical lattice simulations in real-time. For both, we investigate general properties and relevant degrees of freedom in distinct regions of the phase diagram. Close to the critical point, we find signatures of dynamic scaling behaviour and calculate the dynamic critical exponent z controlling the divergence of the critical time scale. For both the order parameter spectral function as well as the energy density autocorrelation, we extract universal dynamic scaling functions. Modifying the simulation framework to include dynamically changing temperature and external field allows us to study non-equilibrium phenomena. For the special case of instant quenches to the critical point, we identify universal scaling behaviour controlled by the initial magnetization, and calculate the related additional dynamic critical exponent. We extract the universal non-equilibrium scaling functions for the evolution of both the order parameter as well as the correlation length.