Differential effects of arsenite and arsenate on rice (Oryza sativa) plants differing in glutathione S-transferase gene expression
Contamination of paddy soils with arsenic (As) can cause phytotoxicity in rice and increase the accumulation of arsenic in grains. The uptake and accumulation of As in rice depends on the different As species present in the soil. Plants detoxify As by conjugating and sequestering xenobiotic compounds into vacuoles using various enzymes. However, ... the severity of damage induced by arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)), as well as the roles of glutathione S-transferase in detoxifying these As species in rice, are not fully understood. In this study, we developed plant materials overexpressing a glutathione S-transferase gene OsGSTU40 under the control of the maize UBIL promoter. Through systematic investigations of both wild-type Nipponbare (Oryza sativa L., ssp. japonica) and OsGSTU40 overexpression lines under chronic or acute stress of As, we aimed to understand the toxic effects of both As(III) and As(V) on rice plants at the vegetative growth stage. We hypothesized that (i) As(III) and As(V) have different toxic effects on rice plants and (ii) OsGSTU40 played positive roles in As toxicity tolerance. Our results showed that As(III) was more detrimental to plant growth than As(V) in terms of plant growth, biomass, and lipid peroxidation in both chronic and acute exposure. Furthermore, overexpression of OsGSTU40 led to better plant growth even though uptake of As(V), but not As(III), into shoots was enhanced in transgenic plants. In acute As(III) stress, transgenic plants exhibited a lower level of lipid peroxidation than wild-type plants. The element composition of plants was dominated by the different As stress treatments rather than by the genotype, while the As concentration was negatively correlated with phosphorus and silicon. Overall, our findings suggest that As(III) is more toxic to plants than As(V) and that glutathione S-transferase OsGSTU40 differentially affects plant reactions and tolerance to different species of arsenic.
Original publication in
Environmental science and pollution research 30 (2023), 92268-92281