Intraoperative measurement of intraventricular pressure in dogs with communicating internal hydrocephalus
Collapse of the lateral cerebral ventricles after ventriculo-peritoneal drainage is a fatal complication in dogs with internal hydrocephalus. It occurs due to excessive outflow of cerebrospinal fluid into the peritoneal cavity (overshunting). In most shunt systems, one-way valves with different pressure settings regulate flow into the distal ... catheter to avoid overshunting. The rationale for the choice of an appropriate opening pressure is a setting at the upper limit of normal intracranial pressure in dogs. However, physiological intraventricular pressure in normal dogs vary between 5 and 12 mm Hg. Furthermore, we hypothesise that intraventricular pressure in hydrocephalic dogs might differ from pressure in normal dogs and we also consider that normotensive hydrocephalus exists in dogs, as in humans. In order to evaluate intraventricular pressure in hydrocephalic dogs, twenty-three client owned dogs with newly diagnosed communicating internal hydrocephalus were examined before implantation of a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt using a single use piezo-resistive strain-gauge sensor (MicroSensor ICP probe). Ventricular volume and brain volume were measured before surgery, based on magnetic resonance images. Total ventricular volume was calculated and expressed in relation to the total volume of the brain, including the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem (ventricle-brain index). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the influence of the covariates “age”, “gender”, “duration of clinical signs”, “body weight”, and “ventricle-brain index” on intraventricular pressure. The mean cerebrospinal fluid pressure in the hydrocephalic dogs was 8.8 mm Hg (standard deviation 4.22), ranging from 3–18 mm Hg. The covariates “age”, (P = 0.782), “gender” (P = 0.162), “body weight”, (P = 0.065), or ventricle-brain index (P = 0.27)” were not correlated with intraventricular pressure. The duration of clinical signs before surgery, however, was correlated with intraventricular pressure (P< 0.0001). Dogs with internal hydrocephalus do not necessarily have increased intraventricular pressure. Normotensive communicating hydrocephalus exists in dogs.
Original publication in
PLoS ONE 14, 9 (2019), e0222725