Chemokines (CCL3, CCL4, CCL5) inhibit ATP-induced release of IL-1beta by monocytic cells




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ATP and chemokines are among the first inflammatory mediators that can enter the circulation via damaged blood vessels at the site of injury, leading to an activation of the host s immune response. The main function of chemokines is leukocyte mobilization, guiding immune cells towards the injured tissue along a chemotactic concentration gradient. In monocytes, ATP typically triggers inflammasome assembly, a multiprotein complex necessary for the maturation and secretion of IL-1beta. IL-1beta is a potent inflammatory cytokine of innate immunity, essential for pathogen defense. However, excessive IL-1beta may cause life-threatening systemic inflammation. Here, we hypothesize that chemokines control ATP-dependent secretion of monocytic IL-1beta, by engaging a cholinergic signaling pathway.LPS-primed human monocytic U937 cells were treated with chemokines in the presence or absence of nAChR antagonists or iPLA2beta inhibitors and concomitantly stimulated with the P2X7 agonist BzATP. IL-1beta concentration was determined in the cell culture supernatants. Silencing of the chemokine receptor and iPLA2b gene expression was achieved by transfecting cells with the appropriate siRNA.CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5 dose-dependently inhibited BzATP-stimulated release of IL-1beta, whereas CXCL16 was ineffective. The effect of CCL3 was confirmed for primary mononuclear leukocytes. The inhibitory effect of CCL3 was blunted after silencing CCR1 or iPLA2beta gene expression by siRNA and was sensitive to antagonists of nAChRs containing subunits alpha7 and alpha9/alpha10. U937 cells secreted small factors in response to CCL3 that mediated the inhibition of IL-1beta release.We suggest that CCL chemokines inhibit ATP-induced release of IL-1beta from U937 cells by a triple-membrane-passing mechanism involving CCR, iPLA2, release of small mediators, and nAChR subunits alpha7 and alpha9/alpha10. We speculate that whenever chemokines and ATP enter the circulation concomitantly, systemic release of IL-1beta is minimized.




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