MCT-Dependent Cryptosporidium parvum-Induced Bovine Monocyte Extracellular Traps (METs) under Physioxia




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The apicomplexan protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum is responsible for cryptosporidiosis, which is a zoonotic intestinal illness that affects newborn cattle, wild animals, and people all over the world. Mammalian monocytes are bone marrow-derived myeloid leukocytes with important defense effector functions in early host innate immunity due to their ATP purinergic-, CD14- and CD16-receptors, adhesion, migration and phagocytosis capacities, inflammatory, and anti-parasitic properties. The formation of monocyte extracellular traps (METs) has recently been reported as an additional effector mechanism against apicomplexan parasites. Nonetheless, nothing is known in the literature on METs extrusion neither towards C. parvum-oocysts nor sporozoites. Herein, ATP purinergic receptor P2X1, glycolysis, Notch signaling, and lactate monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) were investigated in C. parvum-exposed bovine monocytes under intestinal physioxia (5% O2) and hyperoxia (21% O2; most commonly used hyperoxic laboratory conditions). C. parvum-triggered suicidal METs were confirmed by complete rupture of exposed monocytes, co-localization of extracellular DNA with myeloperoxidase (MPO) and histones (H1-H4) via immunofluorescence- and confocal microscopy analyses. C. parvum-induced suicidal METs resulted not only in oocyst entrapment but also in hindered sporozoite mobility from oocysts according to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. Early parasite-induced bovine monocyte activation, accompanied by membrane protrusions toward C. parvum-oocysts/sporozoites, was unveiled using live cell 3D-holotomographic microscopy analysis. The administration of NF449, an inhibitor of the ATP purinergic receptor P2X1, to monocytes subjected to varying oxygen concentrations did not yield a noteworthy decrease in C. parvum-induced METosis. This suggests that the cell death process is not dependent on P2X1. Additionally, blockage of glycolysis in monocyte through 2-deoxy glucose (2-DG) inhibition reduced C. parvum-induced METosis but not significantly. According to monocyte energetic state measurements, C. parvum-exposed cells neither increased extracellular acidification rates (ECAR) nor oxygen consumption rates (OCR). Lactate monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) inhibitor (i.e., AR-C 141990) treatments significantly diminished C. parvum-mediated METs extrusion under physioxic (5% O2) condition. Similarly, treatment with either DAPT or compound E, two selective Notch inhibitors, exhibited no significant suppressive effects on bovine MET production. Overall, for the first time, we demonstrate C. parvum-mediated METosis as P2X1-independent but as an MCT-dependent defense mechanism under intestinal physioxia (5% CO2) conditions. METs findings suggest anti-cryptosporidial effects through parasite entrapment and inhibition of sporozoite excystation.




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Biology 12 (2023), 1 - 20, 961




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